Egypt's second largest city, founded in 332 BC and named after Alexander the Great. The City of Alexandria (Alexandreia; Al Iskendariyya) with it's towering Pharos lighthouse, marked the ancient harbor's entrance, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Part of the ancient city disappeared under the sea and part under the modern city, so there are few visible remains of its glorious past.
Alexandria came to be regarded as the capital of knowledge and learning, in part because of the Great Library or Library of Alexandria. It was considered the archive of ancient knowledge and was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
Alexandria's Catacombs, known as Kom El Shoqafa, is one of the world's largest Roman burial sites. Positioned over a tri-level labyrinth, a spiral staircase descends down into a network of underground passages, tombs, and antechambers.
The Citadel of Qaitbay, established in 1477 AD and situated on the eastern side of the northern tip of Pharos Island at the mouth of the Eastern Harbour, was designed as a defense along the Mediterranean coastline.
The Roman Amphitheatre or Roman Theater is located in the central region of Alexandria city at Kom el-Dikka. Bordered by the Horrya Street in the north. Roman Theatre is an important symbol of the city of Alexandria.